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Definition: Algebraic topology is the study of intrinsic qualitative aspects of spatial objects (e.g., surfaces, spheres, tori, circles, knots, links, configuration spaces, etc.) that remain invariant under both-directions continuous one-to-one (homeomorphic) transformations. The discipline of algebraic topology is popularly known as "rubber-sheet geometry" and can also be viewed as the study of disconnectivities. Algebraic topology has a great deal of mathematical machinery for studying different kinds of hole structures, and it gets the prefix "algebraic" since many hole structures are represented best by algebraic objects like groups and rings.